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## What are the two types of variances?

When effect of variance is concerned, there are two types of variances:

- When actual results are better than expected results given variance is described as favorable variance.
- When actual results are worse than expected results given variance is described as adverse variance, or unfavourable variance.

**How do you find the direct materials variance?**

To compute the direct materials quantity variance, subtract the actual quantity of direct materials at standard price ($310,500) from the standard cost of direct materials ($289,800), resulting in an unfavorable direct materials quantity variance of $20,700.

**What are material variances?**

Material variance has two definitions, one relating to direct materials and the other to the size of a variance. They are: Related to materials. This is the difference between the actual cost incurred for direct materials and the expected (or standard) cost of those materials. Material yield variance.

### What do you mean by direct material variance?

In variance analysis (accounting) direct material total variance is the difference between the actual cost of actual number of units produced and its budgeted cost in terms of material.

**What are the 3 main sales variances?**

They are:

- Gross profit variance. This measures the ability of a business to generate a profit from its sales and manufacturing capabilities, including all fixed and variable production costs.
- Contribution margin variance.
- Operating profit variance.
- Net profit variance.

**How many types of variance are there?**

Types of Variance – Top 8 Types: Method Variance, Revision Variance, Material Variance, Direct Labour Variance, Overhead Variance, Calendar Variance and a Few Others. In standard costing, variance analysis is very useful.

#### What do you mean by material cost variance?

Direct material cost variance is the difference between the standard cost of direct materials specified for the actual output achieved and the actual cost of direct materials used. In short, it is the difference between the standard cost and the actual cost of direct materials.

**How is material cost calculated?**

The price variance (Vmp) of a material is computed as follows: Vmp = (Actual unit cost – Standard unit cost) * Actual Quantity Purchased. or. Vmp = (Actual Quantity Purchased * Actual Unit Cost) – (Actual Quantity Purchased * Standard Unit Cost).

**What are the variances in direct material variance?**

The direct material variance is comprised of two other variances, which are: Purchase price variance. This is the difference between the standard and actual cost per unit of the direct materials purchased, multiplied by the standard number of units expected to be used in the production process. Material yield variance.

## What is the formula for material cost variance?

Formula for Material Cost Variance = Standard Cost – Actual Cost. Material Cost Variance can be due to less purchase price being paid than the standard or because of change in the quantity of material used. Thus, Material Cost Variance is made up of two components namely; Material Price Variance and Material Usage Variance.

**What is the meaning of material usage variance?**

Let us now understand the meaning of Material Usage Variance. Material Usage Variance is the difference between the standard quantity specified for actual production and the actual quantity used at the standard purchase price.

**What does direct materials variance mean for Jerry’s Ice Cream?**

Answer: As shown in Figure 10.4 “Direct Materials Variance Analysis for Jerry’s Ice Cream”, the materials quantity variance is the difference between the actual quantity of materials used in production at the standard price and the standard quantity of materials allowed at the standard price: